History of Redding > My Brother Sam is Dead > Characters  

The Characters in the Novel, My Brother Sam is Dead

Characters in my brother Sam is dead

Tim Meeker- Dynamic character that changes over the course of the novel
Sam Meeker-
Static character remains the same
Eliphalet (Life) Meeker-
Static character
Susannah Meeker -
Dynamic character

Mr. Beach- Static character
Betsy Read-
Dynamic character, by the end of the novel she's had it with the war
Col. Read-
Static character
Jerry Sanford-
Static character
Platt Family-
Static characters
Tom Warrups-
Static character
William Heron-
Static character
Lt. Stephen Betts-
Static character
General Putnam-
Static character
General Parsons-
Static character
General Wooster-
Static character
General Arnold-
Static character
General Silliman-
Static character

Real Life Characters Fictionalized in my brother Sam is dead

Meeker Families

The Meeker's of my brother Sam is dead were fictional, however, there is a real-life similarity via John Meeker's son-in-law Jacob Patchen. Jacob was only 13 years old when he was captured by the British Army during their march to Danbury. He escaped and joined the Continental Army in 1781, serving until the end war. Jacob's family were Loyalists/Tories, his father fled to Western New York and his uncle Andrew fled too. Jacob Patchen married Abigail Meeker in 1787.

The other real-life similarity to Sam Meeker in my brother Sam is dead was, James Sanford, who enlisted with the teamsters for General Enoch Poor's New Hampshire brigade while they encamped at Redding. James' enlistment was contrary to the political loyalties of his family. His younger brother John, who is said to have visited him at camp everyday, is a good candidate for the real life Tim Meeker.

Below are definitions and meanings of the character names in my brother Sam is dead, that may explain why the name(s) were selected by the Collier brothers. *Keep in mind this is my own presumption, I do not know this to be factual.

Meeker: meek (mek) adj., meek·er, meek·est [Middle English meke, of Scandinavian origin]

1. Showing patience and humility; gentle.

2. Easily imposed on; submissive.

Eliphalet (Life): Hebrew. Meaning: God delivers me.

Susannah: Hebrew. Meaning: Lily. In the apocryphal Book of Tobit Susannah courageously defended herself against wrongful accusation. White lilies grew in the Biblical city of Susa in Persia. In the New Testament, Susannah was a woman who ministered to Jesus.

She does defend herself for working on Sunday (a sin), after Eliphalet disappeared in New York State: "God will forgive us, Tim, Don't worry about it, I'm sure of that."

Sam: Hebrew. Meaning: The literal translation of Hebrew Samuel (Shemu'el in Hebrew) is Name of God (from Shem, meaning name). However, in some contexts Shem can also mean son, and hence Samuel would mean son of El or son of God.

Uncle Sam, a personification of the United States government is fitting as well.

Timothy: Greek. Meaning: To fear or to honor God. Tim's fear of God was noted in Chapter 2: "I knew that God could shoot bolts of lightning if He wanted to, but I didn't believe that He ever did. What worried me was that maybe God would punish him (Sam) by getting him bayonetted by a Lobsterback. I knew that God did things like that because I saw it happen once…"

As for the real-life Meekers: Fittingly for the town of Redding there were two sets of Meeker's: Anglican and Congregational.

Information on the Anglican Meeker's comes from gravestones in the Christ Church graveyard:

  • Abigail Meeker, wife of Jonathan Meeker. Died in her 49th year on April 12, 1761.
  • Daniel Meeker, died on July 19, 1760.
  • John Meeker, died on April 9, 1761.

Frank B. Rosenau's Christ Church Parish: The first 250 years history booklet notes that: "The early Meeker's were members of the Christ Church on Redding Ridge." None of their first names are listed- Frank B. Rosenau only refers to them as "the early Meeker's". John Meeker is the first Meeker Rosenau names. In 1833 after the fire at the church John Meeker and his family formally withdrew from the Christ Church for reasons unknown. John was the treasurer and clerk for the church and left on bad terms- he didn't return the church money nor documents after he withdrew. He's called a "villain" in the history booklet.

The Congregational Church Meeker's were:

  • Benjamin Meeker and wife Catherine Burr were admitted church-members June 4, 1747. Their children were: Witely, baptized June 7, 1747. Esther and Eunice, baptized August 13, 1755. Azariah, baptized February 5, 1769.

  • Daniel Meeker was married by Rev. Nathanial Hunn on July 10, 1744 to Sarah Johnson. Their children were: Elnathan baptized July 26, 1747. Jared, baptized January 29, 1749. Rebecca, baptized January 20, 1751. Lois, baptized March 28, 1753. Josiah, baptized July 17, 1757. David Meeker was married by Rev. Nathanial Hunn on October 31, 1744 to Hannah Hill.

  • Joseph Meeker appears as early as May 4, 1735, when his son Isaac was baptized. A Gristmill on the Saugatuck River, off Diamond Hill Rd. was willed to Joseph's wife in 1752, suggesting he operated the mill at some point between 1735 and 1752.

  • Robert Meeker was married by Rev. Nathanial Hunn on September 19, 1746 to Rebecca Morehouse.
  • Seth Meeker was a Private, in the 4th Connecticut Militia, Fishkill Campaign, 1777.

  • Stephen Meeker was a member of the Continental Army and later joined French commander Marquis de Lafayette's elite Light Infantry Battalion. His service is as follows: 5th Regiment Connecticut Line, Northern Campaign, 1775. Does not appear on the rolls of May, 1778. Appears on a list of deserters previous to January, 1780. Appears on rolls of Captain Parsons' Company, 2nd Regiment, Connecticut Continental Line, June 1780, as Sergeant. His Regiment was consolidated with the 9th in 1781 as the 3rd Regiment, and Stephen Meeker was drafted from this Regiment into the Light Infantry Battalion, commanded by Marquis de Lafayette, when he was promoted to be Sergeant. His company formed part of the column of Major Girnat which stormed a redoubt at Yorktown, Virginia.

Platt Families

Timothy Platt was admitted a Congregational church-member May 10, 1741, on recommendation of Rev. Chapman. He was probably father of the Timothy Platt who married the sister of John R. Hill, and settled in Lonetown. Timothy Platt died December 5, 1769, aged sixty-two years.

But one child is found for Timothy-Abigail, baptized April 8, 1736; Abigail married Nathaniel Hull May 28, 1754 (Nathaniel and Abigail Hull had moved to Ulster Co., NY by the time of the Revolutionary War. Nathaniel was in the 3rd and 4th Regiments of the Ulster Co. Militia in the war).

Obadiah Platt, who appears in Redding as early as 1737. The children of Obadiah Platt were: Mary, baptized February 20, 1737. Elizabeth, May 15, 1739.

Jonas Platt - Made prisoner in the Danbury Raid. Private, 4th Conn. Militia, Fishkill Campaign, October 1777. Recruit for the Cont. Army, 1780, for 3 months and received a bounty. Jonas Platt married Elizabeth Sanford, October 17, 1747. Their children were: John, baptized February 5, 1752. Daniel, August 11, 1754. Eunice, May 30, 1756. He removed to New York.

Obadiah and Jonas were likely the brothers of Timothy Platt.

Hezekiah Platt appears in Redding as early as April 4, 1762, when his son Justus was baptized. His other children recorded were: Hezekiah, January 16, 1764. William, May 18, 1766. Griswold, December 1, 1767. Robert, September 1, 1771.

Isaac Platt - An artificer in Col. Baldwin's Regiment of the Massachusetts Line. Was a pensioner. Died, October 19, 1824.

Samuel Platt - Private in Col. Baldwin's Regiment of the Massachusetts Line, for 3 years from December 24, 1777. Was a pensioner.

Zebulon Platt - In 4th Conn. Militia. Was twice reported by Captain Gray for failure to march with his company; first, June 3, 1779, to the North River (Hudson) "to join troops there assembled and Defend Against the enemies of the United States of America," and second, on July 7, 1779, "to march to Fairfield to join the troops there collecting to oppose the enemy." On the first count the court found him not guilty but levied the cost of "30 pounds lawful money" on him. On the second he was found not guilty and the case was dismissed without costs.

The Reverend John Beach (1700-1782) of the Christ Church Episcopal (Anglican)

John Beach, missionary of the Church of England (Christ Church Episcopal) in Redding, was born in Stratford, Conn., October 6, 1700. His father was Isaac Beach, son of John Beach who came from England in 1643. John Beach graduated from Yale College in 1721. He married, first, Sarah (last name unknown), who died in 1756; and second, Abigail Holbrook, who after his death in 1782 returned to Derby.

Though he is well known for his "loyalty to the King of England and his church" initially Mr. Beach was as he called them, an "independent". He graduated from Yale at the age of twenty-one, and was licensed to preach soon afterwards. He is said to have been selected for the Presbyterian pastorate at Newtown as a "popular and insinuating young man," well fitted to check the growth of Episcopacy, which was thriving in Newtown under the ministry of Henry Caner and Samuel Johnson. Before John Beach arrived in 1722, Anglicans claimed to be a majority in that town, yet, soon after Beach's arrival Mr. Johnson's following fell to only about five families.

Despite his success as an "independent" (Presbyterian or Congregational Minister) John Beach appears to have become attracted to the Anglican ideology promoted by his former teacher, Samuel Johnson. Frequent and earnest discussions resulted between Johnson and Beach, the influence of which soon became evident to Mr. Beach's congregation. After two or three years of patient study and meditation he alarmed his congregation with his frequent use of the Lord's Prayer; in some cases reading whole chapters from the Word of God. Next he ventured to condemn a common custom in their meetings, of rising and bowing to the minister, instead he came in among them, and begged them to kneel down and worship, God.

At length [in January, 1731], " he told them from the pulpit that, 'From a serious and prayerful examination of the Scriptures, and of the records of the early ages of the Church, and from the universal acknowledgement of Episcopal government for fifteen hundred years, compared with the recent establishment of Presbyterian and Congregational discipline,' he was fully persuaded of the invalidity of his ordination, and of the unscriptural method of organizing and governing congregations as by them practiced. He therefore, 'In the face of Almighty God,' had made up his mind to 'conform to the Church of England, as being Apostolic in her ministry and discipline, orthodox in her doctrine, and primitive in her worship. He affectionately exhorted them to weigh the subject well; engaged to provide for the due administration of the sacraments while absent from them, and spoke of his intended return from England in holy orders.

So greatly was he beloved, that a large proportion of his people seemed ready to acquiesce in his determination." But the others, in evident alarm and consternation at this " threatened defection from their ranks," held a town meeting " to consult" as to " what was possible to be done with the Rev. Mr. John Beach, under present difficulties;" it was "voted to have a [day of] solemn fasting and prayer; …to call in the Ecclesiastical Council of Fairfield to direct and do what they shall think proper, under the…difficult circumstances respecting the Rev. Mr. Beach, and the inhabitants of the town of Newtown- also that the first Wednesday of February [1732] be appointed for the fast.''

The council met, and proceeded to depose him from the ministry. Rev. Beach left for England soon after and returned from England with his Anglican/Episcopal Holy Orders in the autumn of 1732, and took charge of the Newtown and Redding Ridge mission.

From 1733 to approximately 1760, Mr. Beach lived in a house he had built just south of the church on the west side of what is now Black Rock Turnpike. Shortly after his first wife, Sarah died in 1756, Mr. Beach moved to Newtown. From 1760 on, his letters to London are dated from Newtown. In 1772, Mr. Beach sold the Redding house to John Lyon who side openly with the British during the early political tensions that led to the American Revolution. When Lyon left Redding for Nova Scotia, the property was confiscated by the state and acquired by Squire William Heron, the double-agent who spied for both sides in the Revolution.

John Beach had in all nine children, Lazarus, born 1736, is note worthy:

Lazarus Beach , Sr., was the leader of Redding's Loyalists during the Revolution. He lived on what is known as Poverty Hollow Road in the present day. He purchased the house and 247-acres from Abel Morehouse in 1769. He also inherited his father's land in Newtown, at Hopewell in 1782. After the Revolution, Lazarus, Sr. remained in Redding and served as selectman from 1788-1789. In his later years, he is said to have advocated public education.

Squire William Heron

Squire William Heron lived just south of the Anglican/Episcopal church on Redding Ridge. He was a native of Cork, Ireland; a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. He has been described as: a man of much ability and force of character. In appearance: short, portly, and florid, with a deep bass voice and a countenance well calculated to disguise the true sentiments of the owner.

Heron's pre-Redding days are a bit enigmatic. He never spoke of them except to say that he was a native of Cork, Ireland, and had been educated at Trinity College, Dublin. It is said that Squire Heron taught at the Academy in Greenfield Hill before coming to Redding, and had also surveyed the old stage route from New York to Boston.

The precise date of his arrival in Redding is absent from record, but most agree it was prior to the Revolution. A notation in Frank B. Rosenau's Christ Church Parish: The first 250 years indicates Heron acquired the property of John Lyon, when Lyon fled Redding and joined British forces in Long Island, and the property was confiscated by the state. Lyon had purchased the home from Anglican Rev. John Beach in 1772.

Was William Heron a spy?

Vague, ambiguous, unclear…these words come to mind often when sorting out Squire William Heron's biography: He was an Anglican, but then again he was Irish; He had chosen to live on Redding Ridge, which was known for it's loyalty to England, yet, his name is absent from the list of Redding's Loyalist Association; Some historians state: "At the time of Tryon's invasion he openly gave aid and comfort to the enemy." But, others have claimed he also met with Wooster, Silliman and Arnold. Why would a Tory hold council with American Generals as they pursued Tryon and his troops?; He was an elected member of the Connecticut General Assembly but traveled to "loyalist-friendly" New York often for "business".

A publication entitled Sir Henry Clinton's Secret Service Record of Private Daily Intelligence, which surfaced in 1882, revealed the truth about William Heron's role in the Revolutionary War…he was a double-agent.

Heron provided information to both American and British commanders during the war. The British received information of little importance, while the Americans received reports that were far more significant and useful.

He most certainly fit the profile of a double-agent. He arrived in Redding just before the Revolution, at a time most residents were more concerned with the threat of war than who their new neighbors were; it appears local residents barely noticed his existence until the war was underway. Even to those who actually spoke to him, his past remained unknown, as he wouldn't discuss it. He was conveniently situated across the street from the residence/tavern of Patriot Stephen Betts and right next to the Anglican/Episcopal Church. From the comfort of his very own home, he was capable of monitoring the movements of either side.

Redding residents clearly viewed Heron as a patriot, throughout the war they honored him with office, and placed him on committees to advance the patriot cause. For instance, April 2, 1777, he was placed on a committee to hire recruits for the Continental army. June 2, 1779, he was appointed delegate to a county convention on monetary affairs; Dec. 27, 1780, on a committee to ascertain the length of time certain citizens of the town had served in the army; April 16, 1781, on Committee of Correspondence; Feb. 28, 1782, on a committee to form citizens into classes for recruiting purposes. For four sessions during the war he served in the Connecticut General Assembly by vote of his townsmen, viz.: May, 1778; October, 1779; January, 1780; May, 1781.

Other's outside of Redding viewed him as a patriot too. Connecticut's Governor Trumbull provided passes to Squire Heron that allowed him to freely travel to and from New York for business. General Samuel H. Parsons, in a letter to George Washington, dated April 6, 1782, gave his approval of Heron:

"I forgot to mention the name of Mr. William Heron of Redding, who has for several years had opportunities of informing himself of the state of the enemy, their designs and intentions, with more certainty and precision than most men who have been employed. He is a native of Ireland, a man of very large knowledge and a great share of natural sagacity, united with a sound judgment, but of as unmeaning a countenance as any person in my acquaintance. With this appearance he is as little suspected as any man can be. An officer in the department of the Adjutant General is a countryman and a very intimate acquaintance of Mr. Heron, through which channel he has been able frequently to obtain important and very interesting intelligence. He has frequently brought me the most accurate descriptions of the posts occupied by the enemy, and more rational accounts of their numbers, strength and design than I have been able to obtain in any other way. As to his character, I know him to be a consistent national Whig; he is always in the field in any alarm and has in every trial proved himself a man of bravery. He has a family and a considerable interest in the measures of the country. In opposition to this his enemies suggest that he carries on illicit trade with the enemy, but I have lived two years next door to him and am fully convinced he has never had a single article of any kind for sale during that time. I know many persons of more exalted character are also accused; none more than Governor Trumbull, nor with less reason. I believe the Governor and Mr. Heron as clear of this business as I am, and I know myself to be totally free from every thing which has the least connection with that commerce."

From the winter of 1778-9, when the American Troops encamped in Redding to 1781, Samuel H. Parsons' was headquartered at Esquire Stephen Betts' on Redding Ridge. Heron's proximity to Parsons was viewed a benefit on both sides of the war: for the Americans, Heron and Parsons could secretly exchange information without much difficulty; for the British, Heron was in perfect position to monitor the American General's visitors and movements.

What the British Commanders did not know was they were receiving dated Connecticut General Assembly information and insubstantial troop position reports from Heron. One of the ways Heron gained access to the British lines was to ride to Fairfield, leave his horse with a Tory there named "Bradley", cross the sound to Huntington on Long Island, or an adjacent part, and thence make his way into the enemy's lines at New York.

Some examples of the letters Heron sent to British Commanders are as follows:

February 4th, 1781, Heron wrote Sir Henry Clinton from Redding that he had hoped to see General Oliver de Lancey, Clinton's Adjutant General in New York, before that time, but had failed to obtain a flag of truce. He added that he had been in Hartford and to the camps in the Highlands; at the former to inform the British of the Secret Convention (which had been held in Hartford the November before) as to what had been done there; to the latter to discover the feeling of the officers and soldiers in the Continental camp, and had succeeded to his entire satisfaction, and he proceeded to tell Clinton that the object of the Convention was to form a closer union of the Eastern and Western colonies, make Washington dictator, and raise money and supplies for the army (all of which had, no doubt, been brought to Clinton by his numerous spies months before). In the Highlands, he added, he spent the night with Parsons and Stark, both of whom were his friends, and gave a very gloomy picture of the destitution and discontent of the soldiers (which was also perfectly known to the British Commander).

In another letter Heron cautioned his correspondent against paying any great attention to the reports of those who only "take up on hearsay." "Some of this class." he continues, "deceive persons in high office with you. They have no access to those from whom perfect knowledge can be obtained," "Believe me," he continues, "there are but few who are let into secrets of the cabinet, nor could I know them were it not for my intimacy with some of the principal officers in the civil and military departments arising from my having been a member of the Legislature and being still continued one of a committee appointed by the Assembly to examine into the staff department." While absent he would "have made it a part of his business to acquire a perfect knowledge of the state of the French at Rhode Island, but finding a person charged with that duty, who he believed would do it with tolerable accuracy, he had not done so." Again: "Private dispatches are frequently sent from your city to the chief here by some traitors. They come by way of Setauket (Long Island) where a certain "Brewster" receives them at or near a certain woman's house."

An admirable example of the manner in which Heron informed the British Commander of important events after they had occurred, was his account of the attempt by Colonel Humphreys, Washington's aide-de-camp, to seize the person of the British Commander-in-Chief by a rush upon his headquarters at No. 1 Broadway. "A daring enterprise was lately concerted at the quarters of the chief here," he writes, and goes on to describe the attempt after it had failed. So much was this the case that after a time Major Oliver de Lancey began to grow suspicious and complained that Heron's information was either stale or of no importance.

It is probable that Heron quieted de Lancey's suspicions with promises of winning over to the British cause his friend General Parsons. Writing of Parsons' "Don't you judge him to be a gentleman possessed of too much understanding and liberality of sentiment to think that the welfare of his country consists in an unnatural alliance with the enemies of the Protestant religion, a perfidious nation with whom no faith can be kept, as all the nations of Europe have experienced…"

Under date of July 8, 1781, he provided a deceptive report on the American and French troops to Major de Lancey:

"The five regiments of our states are more than 1,200 men deficient of their complement; the other states (except Rhode Island and New York, who are fuller) are nearly in the same condition. Our magazines are few in number. Your fears for them are groundless. They are principally at West Point, Fishkill, Wapping Creek, and Newburg, which puts them out of the enemy's power, except they attempt their destruction by a force sufficient to secure the Highlands, which they cannot do, our guards being sufficient to secure them from small parties. The French troops yesterday encamped on our left, near the Tuckeyhoe Road. Their number I have not had the opportunity to ascertain. Other matters of information I shall be able to give you in a few days."

*When the allied American and French armies marched to Virginia in the Fall of 1781, they outnumbered the British 17,000 to 9,700.

Heron also wrote that he had concerted measures with Parsons by which he would receive every material article of intelligence from the American camp. Heron's lure of winning over Parsons was an effective means of retaining the confidence of the British and affording him a pretext for visits to the British camp, where he used his eyes and ears with the most excellent results for the patriot cause.

Proof of Heron's loyalty to Parsons and the American cause was best exhibited in 1780. In July of that year, Benedict Arnold was promoted to Major General in command of West Point, New York. By August, he had already initiated secret correspondence with British General Sir Henry Clinton in New York City through British Major John André. Arnold offered to hand the West Point Fort and the Hudson River over to the British for £20,000 and a brigadier's commission. On August 28, William Heron was called on to deliver a letter from Arnold to André. Even though Arnold's promotion placed Samuel H. Parsons under him in command, Heron did not deliver the letter to its intended receiver, instead he passed it to Parsons on September 10. Unfortunately, Parsons was unable to comprehend the significance of the letter. Luckily for the Americans, Major André was captured on September 23 with dispatches from Arnold, who promptly fled to the British when he learned of André's capture (Arnold was scheduled to meet with Washington that day). It wasn't until after Andre's trial that Parsons realized the significance of the letter Heron had delivered weeks earlier and immediately forwarded the letter to Washington. André was denied his request of a soldier's death by a firing squad and instead was convicted of being a spy and hanged.

After the war William Heron remained in Redding and represented the town in the legislature through seventeen sessions, covering a period of eighteen years. He is said to have exercised a great deal of influence in public affairs, especially at town meetings.

"We must keep down the underbrush" was a favorite remark of his in speaking of the common people. The following story, illustrating in a marked manner the customs of the day, is related of him:

At one of the annual town meetings Mr. Hezekiah Morgan, a somewhat illiterate man, was nominated for grand juror. Squire Heron, in laced waistcoat, ruffles, and velvet breeches, and aiding himself with his gold-headed cane, arose to oppose the motion.

"Mr. Moderator," said he, "who is this Hezekiah Morgan? Why, a man brought up in Hopewell woods: he fears neither God, man, nor the devil. If elected, who will be responsible for his acts? Will you, Mr. Moderator? or I? Why, sir, he can arrest anybody: he can arrest you, your Honor, or even myself;" and with like cogent reasons succeeded in defeating the obnoxious candidate.

His children were: William, Maurice, Elizabeth, Lucy, Elosia, Margaret, Mary and Susan. William Heron Jr. never married. He lived on the old homestead in Redding all his days, and was a man much respected in the community. His brother, Maurice graduated at Yale College, and shortly after was killed in a steamboat explosion on the Connecticut River, near Essex. Mary Heron wed Lemuel Sanford #3, a man of much ability, and quite prominent in town affairs.

Heron died on Redding Ridge, Jan. 8, 1819, at the ripe old age of 77 years, and was buried in Christ Church graveyard. His tombstone bears this inscription:

In Memory of William Heron, Esq.
Who was born in the City of Cork, Ireland, 1742, and died Jan. 8, 1819.
I know that my Redeemer liveth and that He shall stand at the latter day upon the earth.

Stephen Betts

Lieutenant Stephen Betts, a prominent character in the Revolution, lived on Redding Ridge, in a house that stood on the corner, nearly opposite the Anglican Church. He was an active patriot, and was taken prisoner by the British on their march to Danbury in April, 1777. He was a Private in the 4th Regiment Connecticut Militia during the Fishkill campaign; He is called Lieutenant in the records; Was an intimate friend of General Parsons (who was headquartered at his house from 1778 - 1781) and William Heron (neighbor and double agent); A County Convention was held at Betts' house/tavern on August 10, 1779.

Betts moved from the Boston District of Redding (Southeast Corner) to Redding Ridge (Northeast Corner) in 1766, buying land from his distant relative William Hill. He operated a tavern and store on Redding Ridge, and was prominent in town politics, serving as Town Selectman during the Revolution, as well as several town committees formed in support of the war. Betts represented the town in the State Legislature: May, 1782; October, 1782; May, 1783; October, 1783. Stephen Betts was a Congregational Church member which shows that non-Anglicans also lived on Redding Ridge.

The children of Stephen and Ruth (Brimsmade) Betts were Stephen Jr., Sarah, Mary, Hannah, Dorothy, Hepzibeth. They also had a son Daniel, who was a merchant for a while on Redding Ridge and then removed to New Haven, Connecticut.

Stephen Betts' daughter, Hepzibeth, married John Lyon, a loyalist, on September 20, 1761, which shows us proof of split loyalties within families at the start of the war; John Lyon fled Redding and joined British troops, as a result his goods and property was confiscated.

Samuel Holden Parsons

Samuel Holden Parsons, was born in Lyme, Connecticut, May 14, 1737; graduated at Harvard in 1756, studied law under his uncle, Governor Matthew Griswold, was admitted to the bar in 1759, and settled in Lyme, Connecticut. He was in the state assembly for eighteen consecutive sessions, and among other important services settled the boundary of the Connecticut claims on the border of Pennsylvania. He was one of the standing committee of inquiry with the sister colonies in 1773, and originated the plan of forming the first congress, which subsequently met in New York city, and was the forerunner of the Continental congress. He was appointed king's attorney the same year, removed to New London, Connecticut, and was a member of the committee of correspondence. Since 1770 he had been major of the 14th militia regiment, and on April 26, 1775, he was appointed colonel of the 6th regiment, stationed at Roxbury, Massachusetts, until the British evacuated Boston, and then ordered to New York. While on a journey to Hartford he met Benedict Arnold, who was on his way to Massachusetts and obtained from him an account of the condition of Ticonderoga and the number of its cannon.

Taking as his advisers Samuel Wyllys, Silas Deane, David Wooster and others, on April 27, 1775, Parsons projected a plan to capture the fort, and, without formally consulting the assembly, the governor, or the council, obtained money from the public treasury with his companions on their own receipt. An express messenger was sent to General Ethan Allen disclosing the plan, and urging him to raise a force in the New Hampshire grants. Allen met the Connecticut party at Bennington, Vermont, and took command. It had been re-enforced by volunteers from Berkshire, Massachusetts, and subsequently captured the fortress on May 10th. The fifty British soldiers that were taken prisoners were sent to Connecticut in recognition of Parsons' services.

He participated in the battle of Long Island in August, 1776, was commissioned brigadier-general the same month, served at Harlem Heights and White Plains, and subsequently was stationed at Peekskill, New York, to protect the important posts on North river. He planned the expedition to Sag Harbor, and re-enforced Washington in New Jersey. Parsons' troops wintered with General Israel Putnam's division of the Continental Army encamped in Redding in 1778-9 and he remained headquartered on Redding Ridge until 1781. He was in command of the troops that were stationed at the New York Highlands in 1778-'9, and in charge of the construction of the fortifications at West Point. In July of 1779 he attacked the British at Norwalk, Connecticut, and, although his force was too weak to prevent the destruction of the fort, he harassed the enemy until they retired for re-enforcement's, and finally were compelled to abandon the attempt to penetrate the state any farther.

General Parsons was commissioned Major-General in 1780, and succeeded General Israel Putnam in command of the Connecticut line, serving until the close of the war; The Confederation Congress accepted his resignation on July 22, 1782. He then resumed the practice of law in Middletown, Connecticut, was elected to the General Assembly, and was appointed by Congress in 1785 a commissioner to treat with the Miami (Ohio) Indians. Parsons was an active member of the State constitutional convention in 1787, and the same year was appointed by Washington as one of the first judges of the Northwest territory. He removed to the west, settled near Marietta, Ohio, and in 1789 was appointed by the State of Connecticut a commissioner to treat with the Wyandottes and other Indian tribes on Lake Erie, for the purpose of extinguishing the aboriginal title to the Connecticut western reserve. On his return to his home from this service his canoe overturned in descending the rapids of Big Beaver river, and he was drowned in either Pennsylvania or Ohio, November 17, 1789.

Israel Putnam

Israel Putnam was born in Salem Village (now Danvers), Massachusetts, to Joseph and Elizabeth Putnam, a prosperous farming family of Salem Witch Trials fame. His birthplace, Putnam House, still exists. In 1740, at the age of 22, he moved to Mortlake (now Pomfret) in northeastern Connecticut where land was cheaper and easier to obtain.

Strong oral tradition in northeastern Connecticut claims that, in his youth, Putnam--with the help of a group of farmers from Mortlake--killed the last wolf in Connecticut. The tradition describes Putnam crawling into a tiny den with a torch, a musket, and his feet secured with rope as to be quickly pulled out of the den. While in the den, he allegedly killed the she-wolf, making sheep farming in Mortlake safe. There is a section of the Mashamoquet Brook State Park in modern day Putnam named "Wolf Den" (which includes the 'den' itself), as well as a "Wolf Den Road" in Brooklyn, Connecticut.

By the eve of the Revolution he had become a relatively prosperous farmer and tavern keeper, with more than a local reputation for his previous exploits. Between 1755 and 1765, Putnam participated in campaigns against the French and Indians as a member of Rogers' Rangers, as well as with regular British forces. He was promoted to captain in 1756 and to major in 1758.

As the commander of the Connecticut force in 1758, Putnam was sent to relieve Pontiac's siege of Detroit. He was captured by the Caughnawaga Indians during a New York State campaign, and was saved from being roasted alive, after being bound to a tree, only by the last-minute intervention of a French officer.

In 1759, Putnam led a regiment in the attack on Fort Ticonderoga and later at Montreal. In 1762, he survived a shipwreck during a campaign against the Spanish that led to the capture of Havana, Cuba. *It is believed that Major Putnam returned to New England from Cuba with Cuban tobacco seeds that he planted in the Hartford area resulting in the development of the renowned Connecticut Wrapper agricultural product.

Putnam was outspoken against British taxation policies and around the time of the Stamp Act crisis in 1766, he was elected to the Connecticut General Assembly and was one of the founders of the Connecticut Sons of Liberty.

On April 20, 1775, when Putnam received news of the Battle of Lexington that started the day before, he left his plow in the field and rode one hundred miles in eighteen hours, reaching Cambridge the next day, to offer his services to the Patriot cause. He was appointed colonel of the 3rd Connecticut Regiment and subsequently, brigadier of the Connecticut militia.

Shortly after the Battle of Lexington, Putnam led the Connecticut militia to Boston and was named major general, making him one of four generals appointed by General George Washington in Cambridge, MA. He was one of the primary figures at the Battle of Bunker Hill, both in its planning and on the battlefield. During that battle Putnam ordered his troops, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes," which has since become one of the American Revolution's more memorable quotes. This order was important, because his troops were low on ammunition. He progressed to overall command of the American forces in New York until the arrival of the newly-named Commander-in-Chief, General George Washington, on April 13, 1776.

The Battle of Bunker Hill must count as the greatest achievement in Putnam's life, for thereafter, his fortunes took a downturn at Long Island (1776), where he was forced to effect a hasty retreat. Washington did not blame Putnam for this failure as some in Congress did. However, Washington reassessed the abilities of his general and assigned him to recruiting activities.

In 1777 Putnam received another, though lesser, military command in the Hudson Highlands. He abandoned Fort Montgomery and Fort Clinton to the British, and was brought before a court of inquiry for those actions. However, he was exonerated of any wrongdoing. General Israel Putnam's division of the Continental Army encamped in Redding in the winter of 1778-9. In December 1779, Putnam suffered a paralyzing stroke, which ended his military service.

Putnam died in Brooklyn, Connecticut ten years later in 1790, and was buried in an above-ground tomb there.

*General Israel Putnam is credited with introducing cigar-smoking to the US. After a 1762 British campaign against the Spanish in Cuba, "Old Put" was said to have returned with three donkey-loads of Havana cigars; introducing the customers of his Connecticut brewery and tavern to cigar smoking.

David Wooster

David Wooster was born at Stratford, on the second of March, 1710-11, the son of Abraham and Mary Wooster, and the youngest of six children. He graduated at Yale College, in 1738. March 6, 1745, he was married to Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Thomas Clap, President of Yale College.

David Wooster had a natural military turn, and he soon had an opportunity of following his inclination. He was first appointed a captain of Colonel Andrew Burr's regiment, which formed part of the troops sent by Connecticut in the celebrated First Siege of Louisbourg, in 1745; He proved himself an active and spirited officer, playing a distinguished part in the siege and capture.

In 1756, Wooster was appointed colonel of a regiment raised in Connecticut, and afterwards placed in command of a brigade, a position he held until the peace of 1763. Soon after the close of the French and Indian War, he engaged in a mercantile business in New Haven, and held the office of his majesty's collector of the customs for that port. Although an officer in the British army, and entitled to half pay for life, he did not hesitate to take part in his native country's affairs, and with his pen and sword was actively employed in the defense of its rights.

Following the battles at Lexington and Concord, he, with a few others of a kindred spirit, late in April, 1775, secretly planned an expedition from Connecticut, to seize upon and retain that important fortress at Ticonderoga; and to enable them to carry their design into execution, they privately obtained a loan of eighteen hundred dollars from the treasury of the state, for which they became personally responsible. Such was the secrecy and dispatch in executing this measure, that, on the 10th of May, as is well known, this fort was surprised and delivered up to Allen and Arnold, and their brave followers. This step, one of the boldest taken at that period of the contest, was at the sole risk and responsibility of General Wooster, Samuel Parsons and other individuals.

The military experience as well as the daring spirit of general Wooster recommended him to congress, when raising an army of defense, and among the eight brigadier-generals appointed by that body, on the 22nd of June, 1775, he was the third in rank. The operations of that year were principally confined to the vicinity of Boston, and to an expedition against Canada, under the command of General Montgomery.

During the campaign of 1776, General Wooster was employed principally in Canada, and at one time had the command of the continental troops in that quarter.

During the whole winter of 1776-7, he was employed in protecting Connecticut against the enemy, and particularly the neighborhood of Danbury, where large magazines of provisions and other articles had been collected by the Americans. He had just returned to New Haven from one of his tours, when he heard on Friday, 25th of April, 1777, that nearly two thousand British troops sent from New York, had effected a landing between Norwalk and Fairfield, for the purpose of destroying the magazines at Danbury.

Immediately on hearing this news, Generals Wooster and Arnold set off from New Haven, to join the militia hastily collected by General Silliman. In consequence of a heavy rain, the militia ordered from New Haven, did not arrive in the vicinity of Danbury, until the 26th, in the evening. The number of the militia thus collected, and with this small force it was determined to attack the enemy the following morning on their retreat, and for this purpose a part of the men were put under the command of General Wooster, and a part under General Arnold.

General Wooster pursued and attacked the enemy, regardless of the inequality of numbers. But being inexperienced militia, and the enemy having several field pieces, his men, after doing considerable execution, were broken and gave way. The general was rallying them, when unfortunately for his family and his country, he received a mortal wound.

A musket ball took him obliquely, broke his back bone, lodged within him and never could be found. He was removed from the field and had his wound dressed by Dr. Turner, and was then conveyed to Danbury, where all possible care was taken of him. The surgeons were from the first aware of the danger of the case, and informed the General of their apprehensions, which he heard with the greatest composure. His wife and son had been sent for, and arrived soon enough to receive his parting benediction. *He told them that "he was dying, but with the strong hope and persuasion that his country would gain its independence."

He expired on the 2d of May, 1777, at the age of sixty-seven. His remains were deposited in the burying ground of the village, which he had thus died defending.

*His hope was strong enough and persuasive enough, as Independence was gained and the battle that resulted in his death is now seen by many as the turning point in the war.

Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold was born in Norwich, Connecticut, Jan. 14, 1741, the son of Benedict and Hannah Arnold. At the age of fifteen he ran away from home and enlisted in the Connecticut army, marching to Albany and Lake George to resist the French invasion; but, getting weary of discipline, he deserted and made his way home alone through the wilderness.

He was employed in a drug shop at Norwich until 1762, when he removed to New Haven and established himself in business as a druggist and bookseller. He acquired a considerable property, and engaged in the West India trade, sometimes commanding his own ships, as his father had done. He also carried on trade with Canada, and often visited Quebec. On Feb. 22, 1767, he married Margaret, daughter of Samuel Mansfield.

April 20, 1775, the news of the Battle of Lexington reached New Haven, and Arnold, who was captain of the governor's guards, about 60 in number, assembled them on the college green and offered to lead them to Boston. General David Wooster thought he had better wait for regular orders, and the selectmen refused to supply ammunition; but, upon Arnold's threats to break into the magazine, the selectmen yielded and furnished the ammunition, and the company marched to Cambridge.

Next, Arnold was commissioned as colonel by the provincial congress of Massachusetts, and directed to raise 400 men in the western counties and surprise the forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Along with troops including the "Green Mountain Boys," under command of Ethan Allen, the forts were captured on May 10th. Massachusetts asked Connecticut to put Arnold in command of these posts, but Connecticut preferred Allen.

Arnold returned to Cambridge early in July, and remained until September when he was placed in command of 1,100 men for the expedition against Quebec by way of the Kennebec and Chaudiere rivers. The enterprise, which was difficult and dangerous to begin with, was nearly ruined by the misconduct of Colonel Enos, who deserted with 200 men and returned to Massachusetts with the greater part of the provisions. After frightful hardships, to which 200 more men succumbed, Arnold's force arrived in Quebec in November but was insufficient to storm the city, and was obliged to await the arrival of Montgomery. After Montgomery had captured and occupied Montreal, he then joined Arnold, and together, in driving snow, they flung themselves at the Heights of Abraham. Montgomery was killed and Arnold's leg was shattered. For his gallantry he was promoted to brigadier-general. He kept up the siege of Quebec till the following April, when Wooster arrived to take command; Arnold was placed in command of Montreal.

In summer of 1776, having been pushed out of Canada by British re-enforcement's, Arnold became occupied in building a fleet with which to oppose and delay the advance of the British up Lake Champlain. On Oct. 11, he fought a terrible naval battle near Valcour Island, though he was defeated by the overwhelming superiority of the enemy in number of ships and men; he brought away part of his flotilla and all his surviving troops in safety to Ticonderoga, and his resistance was so obstinate that it discouraged Gen. Carleton, who retired to Montreal for the winter. This relief of Ticonderoga made it possible to send 3,000 men from the northern army to the aid of Washington, and thus enabled that commander to strike his great blows at Trenton and Princeton.

On Feb. 19, 1777, congress appointed five new major-generals--Stirling, Mifflin, St. Clair, Stephen, and Lincoln-- Arnold, who was the senior brigadier, was passed over. None of these officers had rendered services at all comparable to his, and, coming as it did so soon after his heroic conduct on Lake Champlain, this action of congress naturally incensed him. He behaved very well, however, and expressed his willingness to serve under the men lately his juniors, while at the same time he requested congress to restore him to his relative rank.

In April, British troops under Gov. Tryon invaded Connecticut and destroyed the military stores at Danbury. Arnold, who was at New Haven, raced to join the militia hastily being collected by General Silliman. Due to a heavy rainstorm, the militia from New Haven, did not arrive in the vicinity of Danbury, until the evening of the 26th. It was determined to attack the enemy the following morning on their retreat, and for this purpose a part of the men were put under the command of General Wooster, and a part under General Arnold. With Wooster attacking from the rear and Arnold positioned in town, there were at least three skirmishes at Ridgefield on the 27th; Wooster was killed and Arnold had two horses shot from under him. Both sides rested on Sunday evening in preparation for a strategic battle on Monday. The American troops had good position between the British and their ships, but were mislead into believing the British would cross the Saugatuck River at a bridge lower than they actually did. Despite being outwitted by the British, Arnold was now pro-rooted to the rank of major-general and presented by congress with a fine horse, but his relative rank was not restored.

While he was at Philadelphia inquiring into the reasons for the injustice that had been done him, the country was thrown into consternation by the news of Burgoyne's advance and the fall of Ticonderog'a. At Washington's suggestion, Arnold again joined the northern army, and by a brilliant scheme dispersed the army of St. Leger, which, in cooperation with Burgoyne, was coming down the Mohawk valley, and had laid siege to Fort Stanwix. After Schuyler had been superseded by Gates, Arnold was placed in command of the left wing of the army on Bemis heights. In the battle of Sept. 19, at Freeman's farm, he frustrated Burgoyne's attempt to turn the American left, and held the enemy at bay till nightfall. If properly reinforced by Gates, he would probably have inflicted a crushing defeat upon Burgoyne. But Gates, who had already begun to dislike him as a friend of Schuyler, was enraged by his criticisms on the battle of Freeman's farm, and sought to wreak his spite by withdrawing from his division some of its best troops. Arnold asked permission to return to Philadelphia, and Gates granted it. But many officers, knowing that a decisive battle was imminent, and feeling no confidence in Gates, entreated Arnold to remain, and he did so. Gates issued no order directly superseding him, but took command of the left wing in person, giving the right wing to Lincoln. At the critical moment of the decisive battle of Oct. 7, Arnold rushed upon the field without orders, and in a series of magnificent charges broke through the British lines and put them to flight. The credit of this great victory, which secured for us the alliance with France, is due chiefly to Arnold, and in a less degree to Morgan. Gates was not on the field, and deserves no credit whatever. Just at the close of the battle Arnold was severely wounded in the leg that had been hurt at Quebec. He was carried on a litter to Albany, and remained there disabled until spring. On Jan. 20, 1778, he received from congress an antedated commission restoring him to his original seniority in the army.

On June 19, 1779, Washington put him in command of Philadelphia, which the British had just evacuated. The Tory sentiment in that city was strong, and had been strengthened by disgust at the alliance with France, a feeling which Arnold seems to have shared. He soon became engaged to a Tory lady, Margaret, daughter of Edward Shippen, afterward chief justice of Pennsylvania. She was celebrated for her beauty, wit, and nobility of character. During the next two years Arnold associated much with the Tories, and his views of public affairs were no doubt influenced by this association. He lived extravagantly, and became involved in debt.

Arnold's loyalty was questioned and charges were brought upon him by Joseph Reed. These charges were investigated by a committee of congress, and on all those that affected his integrity he was acquitted. Two charges -- first, of having once in a hurry granted a pass in which some due forms were overlooked, and, secondly, of having once used some public wagons, which were standing idle, for saving private property in danger from the enemy--were proved against him; but the committee thought these things too trivial to notice, and recommended an unqualified verdict of acquittal. Arnold then, considering himself vindicated, resigned his command of Philadelphia. Washington, who considered Arnold the victim of persecution, soon afterward offered Arnold the highest command under himself in the northern army for the next campaign.

In July, 1780, he sought and obtained command of West Point with the intent to surrender it to the enemy. When his scheme was detected, he fled to the British at New York, a disgraced and hated traitor. Receiving a brigadier-general's place in the British army, in the spring of 1781 he conducted a plundering expedition into Virginia. In September of the same year he was sent to attack New London, in order to divert Washington from his southward march against Cornwallis.

In the following winter he went with his wife to London, where he was well received by the king and the Tories, but frowned upon by the Whigs. In 1787 he removed to St. John's, New Brunswick, and entered into mercantile business with his sons Richard and Henry. In 1791 he returned to London and settled there permanently. His last years were said to have been embittered by remorse. Benedict Arnold died in London, England, June, 14 1801.

Read Family

Mr. John Read, perhaps the earliest settler of Redding, was one of the most eminent men of his day. He was born in Connecticut in 1680, graduated from Harvard College in 1697, studied for the ministry, and preached for some time at Waterbury, Hartford, and Stratford. Read resigned as Congregational Minister of the Church on Watchhouse Hill in Stratford on March 27, 1707 after he was accused (in private) of being an Anglican by his congregation and a council of ministers from other parishes in town were gathered to examine his case. (It does not appear Read pursued "Holy Orders" to become an Anglican minister.) He afterward studied law, and was admitted an attorney at the bar in 1708, and in 1712 was appointed Queen's attorney for the colony. John Read purchased, surveyed and patented 3 grant parcels totaling 500 acres from 1710 to 1712. Read, confirmed his Colonial Grants on May 7, 1714 by obtaining an Indian Deed for "3 pounds in money and the promise of a house next autumn" from Chickens Warrups and Naseco, representatives of the Indian tribe occupying the oblong at that time and settled in the Lonetown section of Redding. He continued to reside in Redding until 1722, when he removed to Boston, and soon became known as the most eminent lawyer in the colonies. He was Attorney-General of Massachusetts for several years, and also a member of the Governor and Council.

He died in February, 1749, leaving a large estate. His wife was Ruth Talcott, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel John Talcott, of Hartford, and sister of Governor Joseph Talcott.

John Read, #1 and his wife Ruth #1, had six children, most notably Ruth #2 and John #2:

Ruth #2, born (probably) in Hartford in 1700; died in Redding, August 8, 1766. She was the wife of Rev. Nathaniel Hunn, first pastor of the church in Redding. They were married September 14, 1737.

John #2, born in Hartford in 1701; lived in Redding at the "Lonetown Manor" and was a leading man in his day in the colony; was much in public life, both civil and military, and was noted for his public spirit, patriotism, and piety.

John #2 married twice. His first wife was Mary (last name unknown), of Milford. His second wife was Sarah Bradley, of Greenfield Hill.

It should be noted that Colonel John Read #2, son of the Mr. John Read #1 mentioned, appears as one of the original members of the first society in 1729, and was the Colonel John Read so often referred to in the town records. His "manor" comprised nearly all of what is now Lonetown, his manor-house stood on the corner of Lonetown Rd. and Putnam Park Rd. (Rt. 107).

John Read #2 was Captain of Redding's first militia organized in 1739, he was Major of the 4th Connecticut Regiment in 1753, and appointed Colonel of the 4th Connecticut Regiment of Horse in 1757.

Below is the General Assembly letter commissioning, John Read #2, as Colonel of the 4th Regiment:

Thomas Fitch Esq., Governor and Commander in chief of his Majesty's Colony of Connecticut in New England.

To John Read Esq.,

Greetings. Whereas you are appointed by the General Assembly of said Colony to be Colonel of the fourth Regiment of Horse in said Colony. Reposing special trust and confidence in your Loyalty, courage, and good conduct, I do by these presents constitute and appoint you to be Colonel of said Regiment. You are therefore to take the said Regiment into your care and charge as their Colonel, and carefully and diligently to discharge that care and trust in ordering and exercising of them, both officers and soldiers in arms according to the rules and discipline of war, keeping them in good order and government, and commanding them to obey you as their colonel for his Majesty's service, and they are to conduct and lead forth the said Regiment, or such part of them as you shall from time to time receive orders for from me, or from the Governor of this Colony for the time being, to encounter, repel, pursue, and destroy by force of arms, and by all fitting ways and means, all his Majesty's Enemies who shall at any time hereafter in a Hostile manner, attempt or enterprise the invasion, detriment, or annoyance of this Colony. And you are to observe and obey such Orders and Instructions as from time to time you from me, or other your Superior Officers, pursuant to the trust hereby reposed in you and the laws of this Colony. Given under my hand and the seal of this Colony, in New Haven, the 3rd Day of November, in the 31st year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Second, King of Great Britain and Annoque Doms. 1757.

By his Honour's Command.
Thos. Fitch
George Wyllys. Secty.

John Read #2's children were:

  • William, who married Sarah Hawley, of Redding.
  • Zalmon, who married Hulda Bradley, of Greenfield. Zalmon Read was Captain of the 10th Company, 5th Connecticut Regiment in 1757, which marched to Canada and engaged in battles at St. Johns and Montreal during the French and Indian War. Capt. Zalmon also assembled and led Redding's militia to Weston to unsuccessfully challenge Tryon's British troops as they marched toward Danbury on April 26, 1777. Zalmon and his brother Hezekiah later converted to the Anglican faith; Zalmon moved to Bedford, New York after the Revolution, Hezekiah remained in Redding and was a major landholder.
  • Hezekiah, who married Anna Gorham. v John #3, who married Zoa Hillard.
  • John Read #3 was an Ensign for the Redding West Company which formed during the French and Indian War (Seven Year War) in 1754. Sadly, he died while on campaign in New York, September 23, 1757.
  • Mary, wife of John Harpin.
  • Sarah, wife of Jabez Hill, and afterward of Theodore Monson.
  • Ruth #3, wife of Jeremiah Mead.
  • Deborah, wife of Thomas Benedict, a lawyer.
  • Mabel, wife of Levi Starr;
  • Esther, wife of Daniel C. Bartlett, son of Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett.

Burr Families

Among the earliest settlers of Redding were Jehu, Stephen, and Peter Burr, sons of Daniel Burr, of Fairfield, and brothers of the Rev. Aaron Burr, President of Princeton College. They all appear at about the same time, viz. 1730.

In October of 1730, Stephen Burr was elected a member of the first Society Committee of the parish. Stephen was a Lieutenant in Redding's first militia formed in 1739. He married Elizabeth Hull, June 8th, 1721. Children: Grace, born December 12th, 1724. Elizabeth, born January 17th, 1728. Hezekiah, born September 1st, 1730. Sarah, born November 9th, 1732. Martha, born March 24th, 1735. Esther, born February 5th, 1743. Rebecca.

He married, second, Abigail Hall, of New Jersey. His only son, Hezekiah, died December, 1785, unmarried. Of the daughters, Grace married Daniel Gold, Elizabeth married Reuben Squire, Sarah married Joseph Jackson, Martha married Zacariah Summers. Esther married Anthony Angevine, and Rebecca married Seth Sanford.

Deacon Stephen Burr died in 1779. Of him Colonel Aaron Burr wrote in his journal in Paris: "My uncle Stephen lived on milk punch, and at the age of eighty-six mounted by the stirrup a very gay horse, and galloped off with me twelve miles without stopping, and was I thought less fatigued than I."

Colonel Aaron Burr, was one of General Putnam's aides and a frequent visitor to Redding. He is credited with suggesting that Putnam consider the area for a future winter encampment during a summer visit to General Heath's Brigade in Danbury. Putnam found the topography and location ideal.

Peter Burr first appears in Redding as a clerk of a society meeting held October 11th, 1730. His children were: Ellen, baptized September 19, 1734. Sarah, baptized February 21st, 1736. Ezra, baptized January 2d, 1737. Edmund, baptized September 28th, 1761. Peter Burr died in August, 1779. His children shortly after removed to Virginia.

Jehu Burr and wife were admitted to Congregational church membership in Redding, December 24th, 1738. None of his children were recorded in Redding, and none, so far as known, settled there. He owned property in Fairfield, and probably spent the last years of his life there.

Jabez Burr #1, son of Joseph Burr, of Fairfield, and his wife Elizabeth, appear in Redding as early as 1743. He is said to have settled in the Saugatuck Valley, near the residence of Stephen Burr, and to have built there the first grist mill in the town. Their children were Elijah, baptized May 15th, 1743. Nathan, born January 1st, 1745. Jabez #2, birth date unknown, Ezekiel, born March 23rd, 1755. Stephen, born January 16th, 1757. Joel, born September 9th, 1759. Eunice, Huldah, and Hannah. Jabez Burr #1 died in 1770.

Of his children, Elijah married Roda Sanford, April 2d, 1767, and had children-Lemuel and Elizabeth; and by a second wife-Eunice Hawley, married April 27th, 1773-Joseph, Roda, John(who died of yellow fever in the West Indies), and Lucy, who married Jonathan Knapp, of Redding.

Nathan, the second son, removed to Pawling, N.Y., Duchess Co., in 1792, and there founded a numerous and wealthy family. Enlisted in Colonel Elmore's Regiment in 1776 and later with Captain Satterlee. Discharged for inability.

Jabez, the third son, married Mary, daughter of Paul Bartram, and removed to Clarendon, VT., in 1786. He died in 1825 at Fairfield, VT on June 28th. He had one son, Aaron. Jabez was a private in the 5th Regiment of the Connecticut line in the northern campaign. Was at the Battle of White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776 and at the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga in 1777. Discharged Oct. 3, 1777.

Ezekiel, married Huldah Merchant, of Redding, who bore him three children: Aaron, who lived and died in the house owned by Captain Davis; William, who removed to Kentucky in 1816; and Huldah, who married Daniel Mallory in 1806, and removed to the West. Ezekiel was a corporal in the 4th Connecticut Militia, Fishkill Campaign, October 1777.

Stephen was a private in the 4th Connecticut Militia, Fishkill Campaign, October 1777.

Couch Families

Ebenezer Couch appears in Redding as early as 1739. His children recorded were: Daniel, Baptized July 29th, 1739. Adea, baptized September 19th, 1742. Elijah, baptized July 26th, 1747. Thesde, January 26th, 1755.

Daniel was in the 5th Regiment of the Connecticut line in the northern campaign. Discharged, July 4, 1775.

Daniel, Jr. enlisted in 4th Connecticut Continental line, Jan. 1, 1781, and received a bounty of 30 pounds.

Elijah served in New York in Major Skinner's Regiment of Light Horse, June 11 to Aug. 3, 1776. Private, 4th Connecticut Militia, Fishkill Campaign, 1777.

Thomas Couch, of Fairfield, removed to Redding prior to the Revolution, and settled on Umpawaug Hill. He married, April 2nd, 1772, Sarah Nash, of Fairfield. Their children were: Sarah, born August 9th, 1773; died young. Thomas, born September 23rd, 1774. Jonathan, born February 13th, 1777. Sarah, born September 18th, 1779. Nathan, born September 25th, 1781. Esther, born December 14th, 1783. Moses, born October 2nd, 1786. Edward, born March 7th, 1789. Hezekiah, born March 14th, 1791. Mary, born April 21st, 1793. John, born July 28th, 1795.

At the outbreak of the Revolution Thomas Couch enlisted in the patriot army, and was one of the band of heroes who were present with Montgomery at the siege of Quebec. He served with Benedict Arnold in the Siege of Quebec, and had served as a clerk in the Battle of Long Island, he also was one of those from Redding captured and imprisoned during Tryon's Raid to burn Danbury in 1777. He left his wife with their young children in Fairfield. When Tryon moved on Fairfield, Mrs. Couch had what furniture and grain she could gather put into an ox cart drawn by two yoke of oxen, and started for Redding, where she owned land in her own right. She followed on horseback, carrying her two children in her arms. At the close of the war, Thomas joined his wife in Redding, where they continued to reside until death. Mr. Thomas Couch died in Redding in 1817. Thomas Couch, received Western Reserve Lands in Ohio for his Revolutionary War services. His son, Jonathan Couch, was an Uncle to Major General Darius Nash Couch who was prominent in the Civil War.

Simon Couch, believed to be a brother of Thomas Couch also received land in Ohio for his Revolutionary War services.

Lyon Families

There were multiple Lyon (sometimes spelled Lion) Families in Redding. Some were Congregationalist, others Anglican.

Among the original members of the Congregational church at its organization appear the names of Daniel Lyon and wife, of Benjamin Lyon and wife. They were recommended by Rev. Mr. Gay and Richard Lyon and wife. All settled in the south-eastern part of the town, near what is now the Easton line (presently known as Lyon's Plain).

The first members of the Congregational church itemized by Mr. Hunn were as follows: Col. John Read, 2d and wife, Theophilus Hull and wife, George Hull and wife, Peter Burr and wife, Daniel Lyon and wife, Daniel Bradley and wife, Stephen Burr and his wife, Ebenezer Hull and his wife, John Griffin, Nathaniel Sanford, Thomas Fairchild, Lemuel Sanford, Benjamin Lyon and wife, Mary wife of Richard Lyon, Isaac Hull, Ester wife of Thomas Williams, Ester wife of Benjamin Hamilton.

The record of their families is as follows: Children of Daniel were: Jonathan, baptized April 12, 1741. Children of Benjamin were: Bethel, baptized May 29, 1733. John, baptized August 22, 1736. Samuel, baptized August 20, 1738. Phebe, baptized February 24, 1740.

The Rev. Dr. Burhams [Churchman's Magazine, 1823] says: "'The first Churchman in Reading was a Mr. Richard Lyon, from Ireland, who died as early as 1735.'' He also says on the authority of " an aged member of the Church in Reading," that "Messrs. Richard Lyon, Stephen Morehouse, Moses Knapp, Joshua Hall, William Hill, Daniel Crofoot, and Lieut. Samuel Fairchild, appear to have composed the first Anglican (Episcopal) Church in Reading."

*Redding Historian, Charles Burr Todd, notes "Richard Lion (Lyon) died in January 1740, aged eighty-seven years."

The Anglican Lyon's. First meeting of the Parish Society of Redding (1729), Anglicans "Moses Knapp, Nathan Lion (Lyon), and Daniel Crofoot" objected against the hiring of any other than a minister of the Church of England. Their objection or "proposal to hire an Anglican minister" was overruled by public vote.

Eli Lyon was a descendent of Richard Lyon and lived on Redding Ridge. He married Betty Hill, daughter of Abel Hill, Esq., a prominent man of the town. Eli died in 1811, aged 78 years. They had four children, most of which removed to Ypsilanti, Michigan.

John Lyon was born on November 16, 1739 in Redding. He married Hepzibeth Betts, the daughter of Stephen Betts, on September 20, 1761 in Wilton, Connecticut. John Lyon was the son of Nathan Lyon and thus the couple attended the Anglican Church at Redding Ridge. Their six children were born in Redding prior to the outbreak of the Revolution: John, Jr., Abigail, Reuben, Sabra, Ruth, Peter.

When Revolutionary opinions were being debated in 1775, John was one of the signers of the Redding Loyalist Association's position statement featured in the New York Gazetteer. When the names of the signers were made public he was "taken up and ill treated by a mob and robbed." Next his property was seized and Lyon left Redding for New York, joining British forces in Long Island. John Lyon's property was quite expansive as he purchased adjoining properties over the course of the 18 years he lived on Redding Ridge: orchards, two barns, two houses (one of which he rented out), a 20 acre farm a half mile from the homestead, 30 acres of woodland a mile and half away. He held a yolk of oxen, three milking cows, three heifers, two horses, and twenty-three sheep at the time of his departure.

Rogers Family

James Rogers was a prominent man in his day, and filled many responsible offices in town. He was a town selectman at the time of the Revolution. He appears in Redding records as early as 1762. His children were: Joseph, born October 31, 1762. Chloe, born October 24, 1766. James, born April 28, 1768. Haron, born August 22, 1770.

Sanford Families

The surname, Sanford, is one of the oldest and most numerous in the town, having been founded by four persons of the same last name, who removed here from Fairfield and Milford, Connecticut. The names of these four settlers were: Nathaniel, Lemuel, Samuel, and Ephraim (listed in the order they arrived in Redding).

Samuel Sanford #1, settled in Umpawaug. He was Captain of the Redding West Company militia formed at the height of the French & Indian War in 1754.

James Sanford, settled in the Foundry district. He was a teamster in the Revolutionary army, and was present at the execution of Jones and Smith on Gallows Hill.

Lemuel Sanford settled in Redding center. He was one of the first committee men in the Congregational society, and prominent in public affairs, serving as an officer in the first Redding militia (trainband) formed in 1739.

The Reverend Nathaniel Bartlett of the Congregational Church
The information below comes from Gary Bartlett of Toledo, Ohio

Nathaniel Bartlett, son of Daniel Jr. and Ann (Collins) Bartlett of North Guilford, Connecticut. Attended Yale where he studied theology, graduating with a M.A. Degree in 1749. He became a Congregational minister, and soon after he was licensed to preach the Hartford South Association recommended him to the Congregational Church of Farmington, Connecticut as a pastoral candidate. This apparently did not work out, however, and beginning in January 1753, he was taken under consideration by the Congregational Church of Redding, Connecticut for a position there. (What the Rev. Nathaniel did during the period 1749- 1753 is unknown, but most likely he was a circuit preacher for small congregations without pastors, filled in temporarily for pastors who were ill, or perhaps he taught school, a common practice for recent college graduates). In April of 1753, the Redding church called him to be their permanent pastor. He was subsequently ordained on May 23, 1753.

The Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett served at Redding for the next 57 years- i.e. until his death in 1810- thought to be the longest continuous pastorate in the history of the early New England churches up to that time. (The record was eventually lost, however, to the Rev. Samuel Nott, who served at Franklin, Connecticut 1782-1852, an unbelievable 70 years).

Rev. Nathaniel married Eunice Russell soon after becoming pastor at Redding in 1753. Eunice (Barker) Russell was the granddaughter of Edward Barker Sr., one of the founders of Branford, Connecticut.

On her father's side, Eunice (Russell) Bartlett's lineage was somewhat noteworthy. Her grandfather was the Rev. Samuel Russell Sr. (Harvard 1681), in whose house in Branford, according to tradition, a group of ministers met in 1701 to donate books for the founding of what was to become Yale University. His father, the Rev. John Russell Jr. (Harvard 1645), was a well known Connecticut Valley minister who founded Hadley, Massachusetts. His main claim to fame, however, was that he hid Major Generals (under Cromwell) William Goffe and Edward Whalley, fugitive members of the English High Court of Justice which condemned and executed England's King Charles I, giving them permanent, clandestine asylum in his house in Hadley when they fled to North America after the restoration of the monarchy. Tradition also has it that these fugitive regicides were also hidden on the property of Governor Leete in Guilford for a few days prior to their arrival in Hadley, and regardless of the truth of this legend, Governor Leete was less than cooperative with Crown authorities sent to Connecticut to investigate the whereabouts of the regicides. Another player in the regicide scenario was the compiler's ancestor John Meigs, who rode his horse from Guilford to New Haven to warn the regicides that the Royal Commissioners were on their way to apprehend them, and that it was time for them to escape. These actions constituted acts of treason against the British Crown a century before our Revolution, and this was the legacy passed down to the Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett and his sons.

Getting back to the busy year of 1753, the Rev. Nathaniel and Eunice began construction on a New England salt-box style house in Redding, on 20 acres of land donated by the church, being a common practice of the era. Per the Redding Church Records, the property was deeded over to the Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett on June 08, 1753, by Deacon Lemuel Sanford. The Bartlett / Sanford house is still in use today, and is in good condition. In its external appearance, it remains virtually unchanged from how it must originally have looked, except for a wing added on to the east in 1847, and a patio out back. It is located at #10 Cross Highway, just off Route # 107 in Redding Center, directly across from the "Heritage House" -former senior center- near the site of the original Congregational Church, which burned down on May 04, 1942.

Sometime during the Revolutionary War period or just afterward (judging from their age and style of apparel) the Rev. Nathaniel and Eunice had their portraits painted. The portrait of the Rev. Nathaniel Bartlett was reproduced in the work The Revolutionary Soldiers of Redding, Connecticut, by William E. Grumman. In a letter to Gary Bartlett (the compiler of this Bartlett history), a Sanford descendant indicated that the portraits always hung in the living room of the Bartlett / Sanford House until it was sold out of the family.

After the deaths of the Rev. Nathaniel and Eunice in 1810, the house was inherited by their youngest son, the Rev. Jonathan Bartlett, the only son who remained in Connecticut. He in turn passed the house down to his nephew by marriage and second cousin on the maternal side, Lemuel Sanford IV. (The Rev. Jonathan Bartlett's first and third wives, Rhoda and Abigail Sanford respectively, were also his first cousins, daughters of Mary (Russell) Sanford, his mother's sister). The Bartlett / Sanford House remained in the Sanford family until being sold on May 21, 1969.

Daniel Starr

Very little is known about Daniel Starr. His headstone is all that remains, it reads:

"In Memory of Maj. Daniel Starr who died April 26th, 1777, aged 33 years and 6 months."

Tom Warrups:

Tom Warrups, was a Native American Indian, and is said to have been one of General Israel Putnam's most valued scouts and messengers in the Revolution. He was the grandson of chief Chickens Warrups, whose tribe resided in Redding at the time of first settlement. It was Chickens Warrups' name that appeared first on land deeds to John Read in 1714, and Samuel Couch in 1724, indicating he was a Chief or leader of the tribe at Redding.

Tom possessed a great deal of individuality, and impressed himself on succeeding generations to the extent that numerous anecdotes are remembered and told about him to this day.

Tom's House: Tom had a house on the high ridge in back of Colonial John Read's Manor. It was built in primitive Indian style, of poles set firmly in the ground, then bent and fastened together at the top. This framework was covered with bark, and roofed with reeds and rushes. Its furniture consisted of framework bedsteads, with bedding of skins, wooden bowls fashioned from pepperidge knots, huge wooden spoons, baskets made of rushes or long grass, pails of birch bark, and an iron pot and skillet begged or borrowed from the settlers. His sister Eunice was his housekeeper.

Master of Revels: Tom would often absent himself from his hut for weeks at a time, sleeping in barns or in the forest, as hunting and trapping were his recreations. A huge overhanging rock about a mile north of Georgetown often sheltered him on these occasions, and is still known as Warrups' Rock. Tom's neighbor and landlord before the war was Colonel John Read #2, son of the early settler of that name. On one occasion Colonel Read had a company of gentlemen from Boston to visit him, and planned a grand hunt in their honor. Tom was always master of the revels at such times, and piloted the party on this occasion. In their rambles through the forests they came to a spring, and beings thirsty one of the party lamented that they had left their hunting cups behind. Tom at once slipped off his shoe, and filling it with water offered it to the guest to drink; whereupon Colonel Read reproved him sharply for his ill-breeding. Tom drank from the vessel while the homily was being delivered and then replaced the shoe, observing with the haughtiness of a king, " Good enough for Indian, good enough for white man too."

Life with Zalmon: After the war, Captain Zalmon Read and Tom were near neighbors, and the former had a cornfield in dangerous proximity to Tom's cabin; Zalmon was missing corn and suspected Tom, and watching, not only discovered him to be the thief, but also his ingenious plan of procedure. About midnight the Indian would come, basket in hand, and seated on the top plank of the fence would thus address the field:

"Lot, can Tom have some corn?"

Tom," the lot would reply, " take all you want ;"

whereupon Tom would fill his basket with ears of corn and march off.

The next night, as the story goes, the Captain armed himself with a grievous hickory club, and lay in wait behind the fence. Presently Tom came, repeated his formula, and proceeded to fill his basket, but when he returned with it to the fence, it was occupied by the captain, who proceeded to repeat Tom's formula with a, variation.

"Lot, can I beat Tom?''

"Yes," the lot replied," beat him all he deserves;"

Whereupon the fun-loving Captain fell upon the culprit and gave him the thorough beating which his roguery deserved.

The Warrups' Family of Redding: There is much we do not know about the Warrups' of Redding due to a lack of recorded history on them…a common problem with Native American Indian history.

Charles Burr Todd states in his History of Redding, that before settlers arrived the unoccupied lands were: "claimed by a petty tribe of Indians, whose fortified village was on the high ridge a short distance southwest of the residence of Mr. John Read (where Lonetown Rd. meets Putnam Park Rd.). This tribe consisted of disaffected members of the Potatucks of Newtown and the Paugussetts of Milford, with a few stragglers from the Mohawks on the west."

By "disaffected" I take it that Charles Burr Todd was saying the "tribe of Indians" residing in what we call the "Lonetown" section of Redding was made up of Native Americans from multiple tribes displaced from their homelands by English settlers making their way into the interior of Connecticut. The "oblong" or vacant lands between the northern boundary of the Fairfield Long Lots and what is now the border of Danbury and Bethel was one of the few available tracts of open space available in the area to Native American Indians at this timeframe.

He goes on to say: " Their chief was Chickens Warrups or Sam Mohawk, as he was sometimes called. Describing "Chickens", President Stiles says in his "Itinerary" that he was a Mohawk sagamore, or under-chief, who fled from his tribe and settled at Greenfield Hill, but having killed an Indian there he was again obliged to flee, and then settled in Redding. All the Indian deeds to the early settlers were given by Chickens, and Naseco, who seems to have been a sort of sub-chief. The chief, Chickens, figures quite prominently in the early history of Redding; he seems to have been a strange mixture of Indian shrewdness, rascality, and cunning, and was in continual difficulty with the settlers concerning the deeds which he gave them."

Chickens name does not appear on all Indian deeds to the early settlers but he does appear on the deeds of John Read in 1714 and Samuel Couch in 1724, two very important land deeds in Redding's history. He was in "continual difficulty with the settlers" because the settlers continually ignored Chickens' portion of the deeds:

"Reserving in the whole of the same, liberty for myself and my heirs to hunt, fish, and fowl upon the land and in the waters, and further reserving for myself, my children, and grand children and their posterity the use of so much land by my present dwelling house or wigwam as the General Assembly of the Colony by themselves or a Committee indifferently appointed shall judge necessary for my or their personal improvement, that is to say my children, children's children and posterity, furthermore, I the said Chickens do covenant, promise, and agree, to and with the said Samuel Couch, that I said Chickens, my heirs, executors and administrators, the said described lands and bargained premises, unto the said Samuel Couch his heirs etc. against the claims and demands of all manner of persons whatever, to warrant and forever by these presents defend."

The above is text from Chickens' land deed to Samuel Couch, Feb. 18, 1724. Chickens, like a majority of Indians that agreed to land deeds in Colonial times, made a point to reserve the right to hunt, fish, and exist on the lands they were "selling". In 1686, Indians in the Umpawaug section of Redding noted similar stipulations in their land deed to Nathan Gold:

"we have laid out ye said land to Nathan [Gold] and bounded it as above by said brook and river and in ye pond and we have marked trees as bounds...for the 2 square miles of land...it is to be noted said Indian proprietors do hereby reserve the liberty of hunting upon said land for themselves in witness of all which we said rightful proprietors have set to our hands and seals this 29th day of December, 1686."

Indians did not understand land ownership the way the English and their future generations viewed it: in their culture, no tribe nor Indian had exclusive, permanent rights to specific parcels of land, "different groups of people could have different claims on the same tract of land depending on how they used it." Chickens was viewed as a nuisance to Redding's settlers because he was strong willed enough to "call them out" for ignoring the Indians "bargained provisions" of the deeds and thus exceeding the usage rights the Indians perceived to be granting in them.

According to Charles Burr Todd: "No less than three petitions of Chickens, complaining of the injustice of the settlers, are preserved in the Colonial Records. The first, presented to the General Court of May, 1738, asked that in accordance with the provisions of his deed to Samuel Couch in 1725, the Assembly would appoint a committee to lay out to him, his children, children's children, and their posterity, so much land near his wigwam as they should deem necessary for his and their personal improvement; and the Assembly appointed such a committee."

"No report of the action of this committee is preserved in the archives; but ten years later, in 1745, Chickens again petitioned the Assembly to appoint a committee to view his lands for the same purpose, and the Assembly appointed such a committee 'to repair to and deed of conveyance, with the savings and reservations therein contained, to survey and by proper meets and bounds set out for, and to the use of the petitioner and his children, such and so much of said lands as they shall be of opinion-(on hearing all parties or persons therein concerned) ought to be allowed and set out to said petitioner and his children.'"

The text of the third and last memorial, is given in full.

"The memorial of Capt. Chickens alias Sam Mohawk of Reading in Fairfield County, showing to this Assembly that in his deed formerly made to Capt. Samuel Couch, late of Fairfield, deceased, of his land lying between the township of said Fairfield, and Danbury, Ridgefield, and Newtown, he had reserved to himself so much of said land as a committee, appointed by this Assembly, should judge be sufficient for himself, his children and posterity, for their personal improvement, which said reserve has since been set out by proper meets and bounds in two pieces, containing in the whole about one hundred acres as per the surveys thereof may appear, reference thereunto being had:

And showing also that John Read, Esq. Late of Boston deceased, had surveyed, and laid out to him two hundred acres of land by the appointment of this Assembly, at a place called Schaghticoke (Kent, Connecticut; Scatacook is another spelling used in the time-period) bounded as in the survey thereof on record:

And also showing that the land aforesaid, laid out to the said John Read. Esq., is much more convenient and advantageous for him, the said Chickens, being well situated for fishing and hunting, and that he had made and executed a deed of exchange of his aforesaid hundred acres, lying in two pieces as aforesaid in the parish of Reading to the said John Read, Esq. and his heirs, which said deed bears date October 11th, A.D. 1748, and in consideration thereof did receive of the said John Read, Esq.

A deed bearing date the day aforesaid well executed to him the said Chickens and his heirs by his heirs by his attorney John Read, Esq. of said Reading, being fully authorized thereunto, of the aforesaid two hundred acres; praying this Assembly that said deeds, executed as aforesaid, may be allowed of ratified, and be admitted as good evidence in the law for conveying and fixing the title to the several pieces of land aforesaid."

This petition the Assembly granted, and Chickens soon after removed to the reservation at Schaghticoke. Chickens Warrup is said to have died in 1762-63, and his son Thomas is said to have died in 1769.

In 1775, the Connecticut General Assembly ordered that the lands of the Schaghticoke should be leased to pay their debts and defray their expenses.

Thomas Warrups, (Chickens Warrups' grandson) was allowed to sell thirty acres of land to pay his debts and provide for his family. Three years after, another tract of ten acres was sold for the purpose of relieving the indigent circumstances of the Warrups family. Thomas Warrups, (Chickens Warrups' grandson) appears on the "Roll Call" of The Armed Forces of Kent, 1775-1783, so it is possible that his return to Redding occurred during Putnam's encampment in 1778-79, as stories told in Kent and New Milford echo the tales of Redding historian Charles Burr Todd.

Stories relating to Kent publications are as follows:

"Tom belonged to a cavalry company, and while on scout was met by a superior force of the enemy and had to fly to safety, and being pursued was overtaken just as he reached a fence. The red-coat aimed a blow with his sabre, which grazed his head, and Tom fell from his horse as if dead. Tom, in telling the story, used to say: 'I did not stir nor breathe as big as a mouse till the trooper was out of sight.' The red-coat remarked, as he wheeled, 'One d--d Indian has got it.' But when Tom came soon after, riding into camp, his comrades, who had seen the performance, greeted him with cheers of welcome."

"Tom Warrups was long known in the vicinity of what is now Northville, on the east side of Mount Tom, where he settled not long after the Revolution and remained many years, but what became of him is not known. He most probably removed to Scatacock. He is said to have a wife and several children."

In any case, his descendents continued to resurface at Schaghticoke. In 1801, the Schaghticokes were reduced to thirty-five tribe members, cultivating only six acres of land, although their territory amounted to twelve hundred acres and extended from the Housatonic River to the New York line. At this time Benjamin Warrups, a descendant of Thomas, was described as a careful and industrious farmer at this place.

Maryanne Cogswell, who moved from Schaghticoke to New Haven and had two children-Nancy and Milton Cogswell was a Warrups descendent reported in 1900. Her daughter, Nancy Cogswell Moody was full-blooded Schaghticoke Indian, living between 1850 & 1934. Wells Offutt and family are the only living descendents of Chickens & Thomas Warrups known as of 2007, Maryanne Cogswell was his great, great grandmother.




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The Setting of My Brother Sam is Dead, Redding Connecticut

Real-Life Characters portrayed in the My Brother Sam is Dead

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Taverns of the Colonial Period

Camp Life and Orders Relating to Redding's Encampment

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Cow-boys and Skinners

What is a Brown Bess?

Locations & Towns Mentioned in My Brother Sam is Dead

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